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[nextpage title=”Introduction”]

The new Extreme 2 entry-level power supply series from Cooler Master comes in four different versions: 475 W, 525 W, 625 W, and 725 W. They don’t have an active PFC circuit and, therefore, don’t carry the 80 Plus certification. Let’s take an in-depth look at the 475 W model, which costs only USD 50.

The first thing that caught our attention was that it isn’t written on the product box or product label  that the unit is a 475 W power supply. The manufacturer carefully avoided adding the letter “W” after “475,” a typical maneuver when the unit isn’t able to deliver its labeled wattage. This way, the manufacturer can claim that “475” is not the power supply wattage, but its model number. Also, it is written on the product supply label: “The +3.3 V & +5 V & +12V1 & +12V2 combine (sic) power shall not exceed 408.9 W.” If we add the 3.6 W limit of the -12 V output and the 12.5 W limit of the +5VSB, we have a 425 W power supply. However, the manufacturer’s website lists this unit as a 475 W model.

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 1: Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supply

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 2: Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supply

The Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W is 5.5” (140 mm) deep, using a 120 mm sleeve bearing fan on its bottom (Young Lin DFS122512H).

The reviewed power supply doesn’t have a modular cabling system, and only the main motherboard cable has a nylon sleeve that comes from inside the unit. This power supply comes with the following cables:

  • Main motherboard cable with a 20/24-pin connector, 19.3” (49 cm) long, permanently attached to the power supply
  • One cable with two ATX12V connectors that together form an EPS12V connector, 22” (56 cm) long, permanently attached to the power supply
  • One cable with one six/eight-pin connector for video cards, 19.7” (50 cm) long
  • Two cables, each with three SATA power connectors, 20.9” (53 cm) to the first connector, 3.9” (10 cm) between connectors
  • One cable with three standard peripheral power connectors and one floppy disk drive power connector, 19.7” (50 cm) to the first connector, 3.9” (10 cm) between connectors

All wires are 18 AWG, which is the minimum recommended gauge.

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 3: Cables

Let’s now take an in-depth look inside this power supply.

[nextpage title=”A Look Inside the Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W”]

We decided to disassemble this power supply to see what it looks like inside, how it is designed, and what components are used. Please read our “Anatomy of Switching Power Supplies” tutorial to understand how a power supply works and to compare this power supply to others.

On this page we will have an overall look, and then in the following pages we will discuss in detail the quality and ratings of the components used.

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 4: Top view

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 5: Front quarter view

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 6: Rear quarter view

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 7: The printed circuit board

[nextpage title=”Transient Filtering Stage”]

As we have mentioned in other articles and reviews, the first place we look when opening a power supply for a hint about its quality, is its filtering stage. The recommended components for this stage are two ferrite coils, two ceramic capacitors (Y capacitors, usually blue), one metalized polyester capacitor (X capacitor), and one MOV (Metal-Oxide Varistor). Very low-end power supplies use fewer components, usually removing the MOV and the first coil. 

In the transient filtering stage, this power supply is flawless, with one X capacitor and two Y capacitors more than the minimum required. There are two MOVs, installed between the two electrolytic capacitors from the voltage doubler circuit and not shown in the pictures below.

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 8: Transient filtering stage (part 1)

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 9: Transient filtering stage (part 2)

On the next page, we will have a more detailed discussion about the components used in the Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W.

[nextpage title=”Primary Analysis”]

On this page we will take an in-depth look at the primary stage of the Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W. For a better understanding, please read our “Anatomy of Switching Power Supplies” tutorial.

This power supply uses one GBU806 rectifying bridge, which is attached to the same heatsink as the switch transistors. This bridge supports up to 8 A at 100° C. So, in theory, you would be able to pull up to 920 W from a 115 V power grid. Assuming 80% efficiency, the bridge would allow this unit to deliver up to 736 W without burning itself out. Of course, we are only talking about this particular component. The real limit will depend
on all the components combined in this power supply.

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 10: Rectifying bridge

As mentioned, this unit doesn’t have an active PFC circuit. The voltage doubler circuit uses two 560 µF x 200 V electrolytic capacitors from Teapo, labeled at 105° C.

The Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W uses a single-transistor forward configuration in its switching section. Two 2SK4115 MOSFETs are connected in parallel to double the maximum current the switching section supports. Each of these transistors supports up to 7 A at 25° C in continuous mode or up to 21 A at 25° C in pulse mode, with a maximum RDS(on) of 1.6 Ω, which is extremely high. Unfortunately, the manufacturer doesn’t publish the current limits at 100° C.

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 11: One of the switching transistors

The primary is managed by a TL3843 PWM controller.

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 12: PWM controller

Let’s now take a look at the secondary of this power supply.

[nextpage title=”Secondary Analysis”]

The Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W uses a regular design in its secondary, with Schottky rectifiers.

The maximum theoretical current that each line can deliver is given by the formula I / (1 – D) where D is the duty cycle used and I is the maximum current supported by the rectifying diode. As an exercise, we can assume a duty cycle of 30 percent.

The +12 V output uses two BYQ30E Schottky rectifiers, each supporting up to 16 A (8 A per internal diode at 104° C with a 1.25 V maximum voltage drop, which is extremely high, i.e., low efficiency). This gives us a maximum theoretical current of 23 A or 274 W for the +12 V output.

The +5 V output uses two STPS2045CT Schottky rectifiers, each supporting up to 20 A (10 A per internal diode at 155° C with a 0.84 V maximum voltage drop). This gives us a maximum theoretical current of 29 A or 143 W for the +5 V output.

The +3.3 V output uses another two STPS2045CT Schottky rectifiers, giving us a maximum theoretical current of 29 A or 94 W for the +3.3 V output.

It is very interesting to note how the +12 V output uses rectifiers that are “weaker” than the ones used on the +5 V and +3.3 V outputs, a typical scenario from 15 years ago. Nowadays, the +12 V output must be “stronger” than the other outputs, since the components that consume the most current from the power supply (namely, the CPU and the video card) are connected to the +12 V output.

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 13: One of the +3.3 V, +5 V, and +12 V rectifiers

This power supply uses a PS223 monitoring integrated circuit, which supports over voltage (OVP), under voltage (UVP), over temperature (OTP), and over current (OCP) protections. The over current protection has four channels (+5 V, +3.3 V, +12V1, and +12V2), correctly matching the number of +12 V rails advertised by the manufacturer (two).

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 14: Monitoring circuit

The electrolytic capacitors that filter the outputs are also from Teapo and labeled at 105° C, as usual.

[nextpage title=”Power Distribution”]

In Figure 15, you can see the power supply label containing all the power specs.

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 15: Power supply label

This power supply is advertised as having two +12 V rails, which is correct, since the monitoring integrated circuit has two +12 V over current protection (OCP) channels, and we clearly saw two current sensors (“shunts”) on the component side of the printed circuit board. See Figure 16. Click here to understand more about this subject.

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 16: Shunts

The two +12 V rails are distributed as follows:

  • +12V1 (solid yellow wires): All cables but the ATX12V/EPS12V
  • +12V2 (yellow/black wires): The ATX12V/EPS12V connector

This is the typical distribution used by power supplies with two rails, and it is perfect.

How much power can this unit really deliver? Let’s find out.

[nextpage title=”Load Tests”]

We conducted several tests with this power supply, as described in the article, “Hardware Secrets Power Supply Test Methodology.” 

Because we had no clue of the real wattage of this power supply, we tested it differently. Starting from 85 W, we increased the load little by little until we could see the maximum amount of power we could extract from the reviewed unit.

If you add all the powers listed for each test, you may find a different value than what is posted under “Total” below. Since each output can have a slight variation (e.g., the +5 V output working at +5.10 V), the actual total amount of power being delivered is slightly different than the calculated value. In the “Total” row, we are using the real amount of power being delivered, as measured by our load tester.

The +12VA and +12VB inputs listed below are the two +12 V independent inputs from our load tester. During this test, the +12VA input was connected to the power supply +12V1 rail, while the +12VB input was connected to the power supply +12V2 rail.

Input Test 1 Test 2 Test
3
Test 4
+12VA 3 A (36 W) 3.5 A (42 W) 4.25 A (51 W) 5.5 A (66 W)
+12VB 2.5 A (30 W) 3.25 A (39 W) 4.25 A (51 W) 5.5 A (66 W)
+5 V 1 A (5 W) 1 A (5 W) 1.5 A (7.5 W) 1.5 A (7.5 W)
+3.3 V 1 A (3.3 W) 1 A (3.3 W) 1.5 A (4.95 W) 1.5 A (4.95 W)
+5VSB 1 A (5 W) 1 A (5 W) 1 A (5 W) 1 A (5 W)
-12 V 0.5 A (6 W) 0.5 A (6 W) 0.5 A (6 W) 0.5 A (6 W)
Total 90.3 W 102.0 W 126.9 W 152.8 W
% Max Load 19.0% 21.5% 26.7% 32.2%
Room Temp. 43.8° C 43.8° C 43.6° C 43.4° C
PSU Temp. 49.4° C 48.8° C 48.3° C 48.0° C
Voltage Regulation Pass Pass Pass Pass
Ripple and Noise Pass Pass Pass Pass
AC Power 124.7 W 138.4 W 167.7 W 199.2 W
Efficiency 72.4% 73.7% 75.7% 76.7%
AC Voltage 116.1 V 116.7 V 115.7 V 115.5 V
Power Factor 0.641 0.653 0.663 0.669
Final Result Pass Pass Pass Pass
Input Test 5 Test 6 Test 7 Test 8
+12VA 6.25 A (75 W) 7.25 A (87 W) 8.25 A (99 W) 9 A (108 W)
+12VB 6.25 A (75 W) 7.25 A (87 W) 8 A (96 W) 9 A (108 W)
+5 V 2 A (10 W) 2 A (10 W) 2.5 A (12.5 W) 2.5 A (12.5 W)
+3.3 V 2 A (6.6 W) 2 A (6.6 W) 2.5 A (8.25 W) 2.5 A (8.25 W)
+5VSB 1 A (5 W) 1 A (5 W) 1.5 A (7.5 W) 1.5 A (7.5 W)
-12 V 0.5 A (6 W) 0.5 A (6 W) 0.5 A (6 W) 0.5 A (6 W)
Total 174.6 W 197.8 W 221.4 W 244.1 W
% Max Load 36.8% 41.6% 46.6% 51.4%
Room Temp. 43.6° C 43.8° C 43.8° C 44.1° C
PSU Temp. 47.9° C 48.0° C 48.4° C 49.2° C
Voltage Regulation Pass Pass Pass Pass
Ripple and Noise Pass Pass Pass Pass
AC Power 225.0 W 254.3 W 285.8 W 316.0 W
Efficiency 77.6% 77.8% 77.5% 77.2%
AC Voltage 116.1 V 115.7 V 114.9 V 114.5 V
Power Factor 0.673 0.676 0.675 0.676
Final Result Pass Pass Pass Pass
Input Test 9 Test 10 Test 11 Test 12
+12VA 10 A (120 W) 11 A (132 W) 12 A (144 W) 13 A (156 W)
+12VB 10 A (120 W) 11 A (132 W) 12 A (144 W) 13 A (156 W)
+5 V 3 A (15 W) 3 A (15 W) 3 A (15 W) 3 A (15 W)
+3.3 V 3 A (9.9 W) 3 A (9.9 W) 3 A (9.9 W) 3 A (9.9 W)
+5VSB 1.5 A (7.5 W) 1.5 A (7.5 W) 1.5 A (7.5 W) 1.5 A (7.5 W)
-12 V 0.5 A (6 W) 0.5 A (6 W) 0.5 A (6 W) 0.5 A (6 W)
Total 270.8 W 292.4 W 315.3 W 337.8 W
% Max Load 57.0% 61.6% 66.4% 71.1%
Room Temp. 45.3° C 47.2° C 46.9° C 48.6° C
PSU Temp. 50.3° C 52.3° C 52.6° C 53.7° C
Voltage Regulation Pass Pass Pass Pass
Ripple and Noise Pass Pass Pass Pass
AC Power 351.2 W 381.6 W 413.0 W 445.0 W
Efficiency 77.1% 76.6% 76.3% 75.9%
AC Voltage 114.1 V 114.2 V 114.6 V 114.5 V
Power Factor 0.676 0.677 0.68 0.681
Final Result Pass Pass Pass Pass
Input Test 13 Test 14 Test 15 Test 16
+12VA 14 A (168 W) 15 A (180 W) 16 A (192 W) 17 A (204 W)
+12VB 14 A (168 W) 15 A (180 W) 16 A (192 W) 17 A (204 W)
+5 V 3 A (15 W) 3.5 A (17.5 W) 3.5 A (17.5 W) 3.5 A (17.5 W)
+3.3 V 3 A (9.9 W) 3.5 A (11.55 W) 3.5 A (11.55 W) 3.5 A (11.55 W)
+5VSB 1.5 A (7.5 W) 1.5 A (7.5 W) 1.5 A (7.5 W) 1.5 A (7.5 W)
-12 V 0.5 A (6 W) 0.5 A (6 W) 0.5 A (6 W) 0.5 A (6 W)
Total 358.4 W 384.8 W 406.5 W 428.9 W
% Max Load 75.5% 81.0% 85.6% 90.3%
Room Temp. 49.2° C 46.6° C 45.8° C 45.0° C
PSU Temp. 54.8° C 55.9° C 57.3° C 59.0° C
Voltage Regulation Pass Fail on +12 V Fail on +12 V Fail on +12 V
Ripple and Noise Pass Pass Pass Fail on +5 V and -12 V
AC Power 479.0 W 521.0 W 563.0 W 608.0 W
Efficiency 74.8% 73.9% 72.2% 70.5%
AC Voltage 113.8 V 113.0 V 110.9 V 110.6 V
Power Factor 0.682 0.683 0.681 0.681
Final Result Pass Fail Fail Fail

The Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W can only deliver up to 430 W. When we tried to pull more than that, the power supply burned. (The component that burned was one of the switching transistors.) But, you can only safely pull up to 360 W from it. When pulling above 360 W, the +12 V outputs drop below the minimum allowed.

Efficiency was between 70.5% and 77.8%, clearly indicating that this unit is a low-end product.

[nextpage title=”Voltage Regulation”]

The ATX12V specification states that positive voltages must be within 5% of their nominal values, and negative voltages must be within 10% of their nominal values. In the tables below, we show the voltage results for the reviewed power supply. We marked in red the values that were outside the allowed range.

Input Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4
+12VA ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3%
+12VB ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3%
+5 V +5.20 V +5.20 V +5.19 V +5.20 V
+3.3 V ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3%
+5VSB ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3%
-12 V -11.61 V -11.64 V -11.69 V -11.71 V
Input Test 5 Test 6 Test 7 Test 8
+12VA ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3%
+12VB ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3%
+5 V +5.18 V +5.18 V +5.16 V +5.17 V
+3.3 V ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3%
+5VSB ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3%
-12 V ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3%
Input Test 9 Test 10 Test 11 Test 12
+12VA +11.61 V +11.55 V +11.53 V +11.49 V
+12VB +11.62 V +11.57 V +11.54 V +11.49 V
+5 V +5.16 V +5.17 V +5.18 V +5.19 V
+3.3 V ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3%
+5VSB ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3%
-12 V ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3%
Input Test 13 Test 14 Test 15 Test 16
+12VA +11.43 V +11.39 V +11.37 V +11.33 V
+12VB +11.42 V +11.37 V +11.34 V +11.31 V
+5 V +5.19 V +5.18 V +5.19 V +5.20 V
+3.3 V ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3%
+5VSB ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3%
-12 V ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3% ≤ 3%

Let’s discuss the ripple and noise levels on the next page.

[nextpage title=”Ripple and Noise Tests”]

Voltages at the power supply outputs must be as “clean” as possible, with no noise or oscillation (also known as “ripple”). The maximum ripple and noise levels allowed are 120 mV for +12 V and -12 V outputs; and 50 mV for +5 V, +3.3 V and +5VSB outputs. All values are peak-to-peak figures. We consider a power supply as being top-notch if it can produce half or less of the maximum allowed ripple and noise levels.

In the tables below, you can see the noise and ripple levels for the Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W during our tests. We marked in red the values that were above the allowed range.

Input Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4
+12VA 16.4 mV 16.0 mV 17.2 mV 19.4 mV
+12VB 17.0 mV 16.8 mV 19.4 mV 21.8 mV
+5 V 11.2 mV 11.8 mV 12.6 mV 15.0 mV
+3.3 V 9.2 mV 9.4 mV 10.2 mV 11.8 mV
+5VSB 12.2 mV 12.6 mV 12.8 mV 14.2 mV
-12 V 16.4 mV 17.4 mV 22.2 mV 22.4 mV
Input Test 5 Test 6 Test 7 Test 8
+12VA 19.8 mV 23.2 mV 24.6 mV 28.0 mV
+12VB 23.8 mV 28.2 mV 29.2 mV 33.2 mV
+5 V 15.8 mV 15.8 mV 16.4 mV 18.2 mV
+3.3 V 12.2 mV 13.8 mV 14.4 mV 15.4 mV
+5VSB 14.4 mV 15.6 mV 16.8 mV 17.4 mV
-12 V 32.8 mV 33.6 mV 37.2 mV 42.2 mV
Input Test 9 Test 10 Test 11 Test 12
+12VA 31.4 mV 37.4 mV 40.0 mV 50.2 mV
+12VB 36.6 mV 42.2 mV 45.2 mV 56.6 mV
+5 V 19.4 mV 18.8 mV 20.8 mV 23.6 mV
+3.3 V 16.2 mV 17.4 mV 18.2 mV 20.2 mV
+5VSB 17.8 mV 18.6 mV 19.4 mV 20.2 mV
-12 V 46.2 mV 43.0 mV 50.6 mV 54.4 mV
Input Test 13 Test 14 Test 15 Test 16
+12VA 52.8 mV 70.2 mV 72.4 mV 78.2 mV
+12VB 58.6 mV 74.6 mV 77.8 mV 83.8 mV
+5 V 33.2 mV 32.2 mV 41.0 mV 50.4 mV
+3.3 V 21.2 mV 22.0 mV 24.2 mV 25.8 mV
+5VSB 20.4 mV 21.8 mV 21.8 mV 26.4 mV
-12 V 78.4 mV 78.6 mV 100.8 mV 129.2 mV

Below you can see the waveforms of the outputs during test 16.

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 17: +12VA input from load tester during test 16 at 428.9 W (78.2 mV)

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 18: +12VB input from load tester during test 16 at 428.9 W (83.8 mV)

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 19: +5V rail during test 16 at 428.9 W (50.4 mV)

Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supplyFigure 20: +3.3 V rail during test 16 at 428.9 W (25.8 mV)

[nextpage t
itle=”Main Specifications”]

The main specifications for the Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W power supply include:

  • Standards: ATX12V 2.3
  • Nominal labeled power: 475 W
  • Measured maximum power: 428.9 W at 45° C
  • Labeled efficiency: NA
  • Measured efficiency: Between 70.5% and 77.8%, at 115 V (nominal, see complete results for actual voltage)
  • Active PFC: No
  • Modular Cabling System: No
  • Motherboard Power Connectors: One 20/24-pin connector and two ATX12V connectors that together form an EPS12V connector
  • Video Card Power Connectors: One six/eight-pin
  • SATA Power Connectors: Six on two cables
  • Peripheral Power Connectors: Three on one cable
  • Floppy Disk Drive Power Connectors: One
  • Protections (as listed by the manufacturer): Over voltage (OVP), under voltage (UVP), over current (OCP), over power (OPP), over temperature (OTP), and short-circuit (SCP)
  • Are the above protections really available? All but the over power protection (OPP)
  • Warranty: Three years
  • More Information: https://www.coolermaster-usa.com
  • Average Price in the U.S.*: USD 50.00

* Researched at Newegg.com on the day we published this review.

[nextpage title=”Conclusions”]

We think it is simply ridiculous that in this day and age there are still well-known brands labeling power supplies with fake wattages. In the case of the Cooler Master Extreme 2 475 W, we can clearly see that this was done deliberately, as the product box and label list “475” without the letter “W” or the word “Watts” after it, probably to protect themselves in the case of an eventual lawsuit, by claiming that “475” is the “model” of the power supply, not its wattage. However, the manufacturer’s website clearly lists this unit as being a 475 W model. Of course, we are against this kind of practice, and Cooler Master may face problems with agencies in charge of regulating the power supply market around the world.

Even if this unit were labeled with its real wattage (430 W), it would still be a bad choice. Voltages drop below the minimum allowed, and noise and ripple levels can increase above the maximum allowed, causing your computer to behave erratically. Also, this unit presents low efficiency.

There are better power supplies at the same wattage costing less.

In summary, we must recommend that you stay away from this power supply.

Updated 06/28/2012:

Cooler Master’s Official Statement

The Extreme 2 series is engineered to be competitive in emerging markets outside of the U.S. where market forces dictate a more aggressive approach. Despite this, Cooler Master includes higher quality capacitors and other critical components. We also make sure that safety regulations such as UL/TUV/ NEMKO/FCC are met and major protections are covered which include: OVP/SCP/OTP/OCP. On top of this, Cooler Master offers a 3-year manufacturer’s warranty.

Safety Regulations

The power supply is required to be tested and to comply with the most current version of the following regulatory specification requirements and/or standards:

Product Safety

  • UL 60950, 3rd Edition – CAN/CSA-C22.2-60950-00
  • TUV / EN 60950, 3rd Edition
  • IEC 60950, 3rd Edition (CB Report to include all national deviations)
  • NEMKO converted from CB
  • CNS13438 (Taiwan/BSMI)

Electromagnetic Compatibility

  • FCC, Class B, Part 15 (Radiated and Conducted Emissions)
  • EN55024 (ITE Specific Immunity)
  • EN55022, 3rd Edition
  • EN 61000-4-2 – Electrostatic Discharge
  • EN 61000-4-3 – Radiated RFI Immunity
  • EN 61000-4-4 – Electrical Fast Transients
  • EN 61000-4-5 – Electrical Surge
  • EN 61000-4-6 – RF Conducted
  • EN 61000-4-8 – Power Frequency Magnetic Fields
  • EN 61000-4-11 – Voltage Dips, Short Interrupts and Fluctuations
  • EN61000-3-3 (Voltage Flicker)
  • EU EMC Directive [(8/9/336/EEC) (CE Compliance)]

Full Major Protections

  • 1. Over Voltage Protection
  • 2. Short Circuit Protection
  • 3. Over Temperature Protection
  • 4. Over Current Protection